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How to Feed Mules

Stemmy hay for horses

How to Feed Mules

Understanding Mule Nutrition

Mules are a hybrid equine species, resulting from the crossbreeding of a male donkey and a female horse. As such, they inherit traits from both donkeys and horses, which influences their nutritional requirements. Mules possess a unique ability to efficiently extract energy and protein from fibrous forages, like grass hay and pasture, making them “easy keepers.” Therefore, the foundation of a mule's diet should primarily consist of good quality forage to satisfy their nutrient needs and support proper digestive function.

In general, mules need a diet high in fiber, with little grain. Mules require slightly less protein than horses, and it is crucial to provide a diet that meets their energy requirements without leading to obesity. The amount of forage provided should be around 1.5 to 2 percent of their body weight daily, and additional supplementation with vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin E and selenium, may be necessary depending on the quality of the forage and regional soil conditions. It's essential to consult with a equine nutritionist to determine the specific nutritional requirements for individual mules, taking into account factors such as age, workload, and overall health.

Forage, Pasture and Hay for Mules 

Mules, being equine animals similar to horses and donkeys, require a diet primarily composed of forage, such as grass hay or pasture. Providing good grass hay, like timothy or orchard grass, ensures that mules receive the necessary fiber and nutrients to maintain a healthy digestive system. Allowing mules to graze in a pasture also offers them an opportunity to obtain essential nutrients, while promoting natural grazing behavior. Donkeys and mules, often referred to as “easy keepers,” can efficiently extract energy and protein from fibrous forage, making it an indispensable part of their diet. 

When selecting hay, it's crucial to consider its quality and digestibility. Alfalfa, a nutrient-dense legume hay, is high in protein and energy, but it may not be the best choice for all mules, especially those prone to obesity or laminitis. Instead, offering a mixture of alfalfa and grass hay can help balance their nutrient intake. It's essential to provide mules with a consistent supply of fresh, clean hay, ideally making up 1.5 to 2 percent of their body weight daily. Consulting with a veterinarian or equine nutritionist can be invaluable in determining the optimal forage plan for your mule, taking into account factors such as age, activity level, and individual nutritional requirements.

Grain Concentrates

Feeding grain to mules should be approached with caution, as most mules and donkeys are considered “easy keepers” and are very efficient in extracting energy and nutrients from fibrous forage. Many mules can easily become obese if provided with excessive grain, which is typically more nutrient-dense than hay. This predisposition to obesity may increase their risk of developing health issues such as insulin resistance, laminitis, and colic.

As a general rule, it's best to limit or avoid feeding grain to mules unless they have high energy requirements due heavy workloads, pregnancy, or nursing. If grain is necessary in a mule's diet, it should be introduced gradually and fed in small amounts. Consulting with a veterinarian or equine nutritionist can help determine whether or not a mule needs grain and, if so, the appropriate type and quantity to maintain optimal health and body condition. 

Feeding Donkeys

Feeding donkeys requires a slightly different approach compared to horses, as donkeys have evolved to thrive on fibrous, low-quality forage. They are known as "easy keepers" and are more efficient at utilizing poor quality forage, such as wheat straw. A diet primarily composed of good grass hay, like bermuda grass, is often sufficient for meeting their nutritional needs. However, it's essential to be cautious about feeding donkeys high-energy feeds like alfalfa or concentrates, as they are prone to obesity and related health issues such as laminitis. Providing a salt block for free-choice access helps to ensure they receive essential minerals, and fresh water should always be available. Their nutrient requirements are very similar to mules: not much grain, lower quality hay, and a balancer pellet. 

Evaluating Body Condition 

Evaluating a mule's body condition is an essential aspect of ensuring their health and well-being. A body condition scoring (BCS) system, which typically ranges from 1 to 9, can be used to assess the mule's overall condition. A score between 4 and 6 is considered ideal for most mules, with lower scores indicating undernourishment and higher scores suggesting obesity. When evaluating body condition, it's crucial to take note of the mule's rib coverage, spine prominence, and the distribution of fat around the neck, withers, and tail.

Regularly monitoring a mule's body condition allows for timely adjustments to their feeding regimen, ensuring they receive the proper balance of energy, protein, and other nutrients. In some cases, a mule may require additional supplementation, such as a balancer pellet, to provide necessary vitamins and minerals that may not be present in their forage or pasture. 


Remember to focus on providing ample forage, like grass hay or pasture, and be cautious with grain or concentrate feeds. Keep an eye on their body condition to ensure they're staying healthy, and don't hesitate to consult a veterinarian or equine nutritionist for personalized advice. By understanding their unique nutritional requirements and adjusting their diet accordingly, you'll have happy, healthy mules and donkeys thriving in your care.

If you have specific questions about feeding your mule, send us an email for a free consultation. 



  • Sandra

    We had mules when I was growing up. Cate was a molly, Toby was a John. Toby had a razor back. I have tried to find information on razor back mules but I cant. They were both the sweetest most precious animals. My dad used the for disking, planting, cultivating and harvest. He plowed with a tractor. I would love to have a mule.

  • Rebecca

    Thank you for the article! One correction here is, when feeding grain…mules cannot be pregnant or nursing. They are sterile animals :)

  • Rebecca

    Thank you for the article! One correction here is, when feeding grain…mules cannot be pregnant or nursing. They are sterile animals :)

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